Developing of the Unit’s Culture Guide at UT’s Surabaya Regional Centre: http //ajodl.oum.edu.my/fajodl/201112/2904263008

Developing of the Unit’s Culture Guide at UT’s Surabaya Regional Centre

Mohammad Imam Farisi Department of Social Studies␣Universitas Terbuka Indonesia ␣ imamfarisi@ut.ac.id

Kisyani Department of Indonesian Language and Arts ␣ Universitas Negeri Surabaya Indonesia ␣ kisyani44@yahoo.com

See > http://ajodl.oum.edu.my/fajodl/201112/2904263008

The Surabaya Regional Centre (SRC) does not have a basic character-based guide for its employees, tutors and learning groups organisers (LGOs) with regard to their duties and functions. Consequently, problems related to rule, norm and ethics have emerged. This research was aimed at developing the Unit’s Culture Guide through research and development. Results of the development consisted of three Unit’s Culture Guide for employees, tutors, and LGOs. According to experts and users, the Guide was “compatible” for SRC. Overall, they also assessed that content, language, and structure of the Guide is “good” (79,17%), and “very good” (18,75%). The essential values of the character considered as a priority for employees were: responsibility, intelligence, honesty, cooperativeness, tact, care, clean and healthy; for tutors were: honesty, responsibility, intelligence, care, tact, cooperativeness, clean and healthy; for LGOs were: responsibility, honesty, intelligence, cooperativeness, care, tact, clean and healthy.

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ASEAN Journal of Open Distance Learning ␣Vol. 3, No. 1 (2011)

INTRODUCTION

Universitas Terbuka (UT) has 38 Regional Centres (RCs) in Indonesia and overseas. RCs are UT’s internal network units for technical operation at the regional level. The Surabaya Regional Centre (SRC) is one of them and has 18 geographical regions which consist of 15 districts and three municipalities: Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Gresik, Tuban, Lamongan, Bojonegoro, Mojokerto (district and municipal), Jombang, Ngawi, Madiun (district and municipal), Magetan, Ponorogo, Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan and Sumenep.

UT has 622,942 students and out of this number, 21,523 (3.46%) are registered in SRC. Most are following elementary education programmes and come from the 18 geographical areas covered by the SRC. In relation to UT’s grand design as a networking university, and to provide a broad range of educational services to students, the SRC established partnerships and collaborations with various institutions and agencies in the area.

To provide academic and administrative services to students, the SRC has three groups of educational personnel, namely, the SRC employees, tutors and learning groups organisers (LGOs). SRC employees consist of administrative and academic staff (lecturers). They have the main task of providing academic and administrative services to students at the SRC office and in the region. Tutors consist of lecturers from the partnering higher education institutions; they are also teachers and education personnel from schools and institutions in the region, for example, the local agency of education. The SRC has 916 tutors whose main task is to provide learning services i.e. face-to- face-tutorials to students in the 18 regions of the SRC. LGOs are partners of the SRC who have the main task of managing and coordinating various services and assistance to student learning groups for each region. They were recruited and formed by the local institutions or agencies such as the local agency of education.

To manage and coordinate this partnership collaborations, UT has a Quality Assurance System (simintas) with ISO 9001-2008 standard, and performance assessment (penilaian kinerja) to evaluate employees in all RCs. Both these instruments can be applied to all RCs nationally, including the SRC. Within UT’s management system, the SRC, as the avant-garde in the local area, has also sought to apply appropriately to both standards.

However, simintas and performance assessment are not effective yet. Indeed, some values appear to have integrated steadily i.e. values of responsibility and discipline. However, other values seem not to have surfaced yet. Values of honesty, such as: friendliness, tolerance, hard work, discipline, social and environmental awareness, etc., are values that should also be developed and revealed in simintas and performance assessment. Although UT has a code of ethics and guidelines for academic staff (lecturers), the code of ethics or guidelines for tutors — also LGOs — have still not been formulated yet, so, it should be compiled immediately.

So far, the SRC also does not have guidelines highlighting the essential values and characteristics which can be adopted by employees, tutors and LGOs when implementing their duties and functions, so there emerged problems with rules, norms

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and ethics. Although these rules, norms and ethics have existed, there are various problems, for example, related to employees who lack discipline, tutors who are irresponsible or LGOs who are less open.

These problems arise because guidelines that focus on the essential values of character as basis for development do not exist. Based on these reasons, the development of the Unit’s Culture Guide (Panduan Kultur Unit) for employees, tutors, and LGOs at RCs, especially at the SRC, is considered very urgent and needs to be realised immediately.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

In general, this research was aimed at developing the Unit’s Culture Guide through Research and Development at the SRC. Specifically, this research has the following aims:

1. 2. 3.

Develop the Unit’s Culture Guide for Employees; Develop the Unit’s Culture Guide for Tutors; and Develop the Unit’s Culture Guide for LGOs.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This research is “Research and Development” (cf. Borg & Gall, 1983; Dick & Carey, 1996; Kempp, 1977). This research has developed the Unit’s Culture Guides as “research products” in the form of guidelines for employees, tutors, and LGOs at SRC. Research subjects consisted of 52 employees, 100 tutors and 19 LGOs within the SRC geographical coverage.

The research procedures were: (a) preliminary studies (need analysis), (b) planning of the guides’ designs, (c) developing of the early products (d) expert judgement, (e) the first revision of the early products and development of draft 1, (f) the early tryout to draft 1, (g) the second revision to draft 1 and development of draft 2, (h) empirical tryout to draft 2, and (i) the 3rd revision to draft 2 and development of final products (cf. Tim PTK dan PPKP, 2007).

This research has not yet been through procedures (h) empirical tryout, and procedure (i) third revision. Both procedures can only be done after the three final products have been officially ratified by UT-Centre. These procedures are an adaptation or modification to the Four-D Model comprising four development stages, namely, define, design, develop, and disseminate, as so-called “4-P Model” (Thiagarajan in Tim PTK & PPKP, 2007). But, in this research, development of the Unit’s Culture Guides are not coming up yet to empirical tryout and dissemination.

The research data consisted of:

(1) Process: development of the guide books. The data was collected using instrument “validation sheets” (validation technique). Validation processes were conducted by using two “expert-validators” to evaluate and validate drafts 1 and 2, and “user-validators” (employees, tutors, and LGOs) to evaluate and validate

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drafts 1 and 2 products. Validation processes focused on these aspects: content, language and structure (including layout). Results of these validation processes were then analysed descriptively by researchers to revise and develop the products, so that they become final products.

(2) Substance: content of the guides which developed. The data was collected by using questionnaires that consisted of the essential of character values, identified by research subjects according to each requirement. The questionnaires were distributed to research subjects to be filled. The results of these processes became the basis to modify, map and integrate the essential of character values into main tasks (tupoksi) for employees, tutors, and LGOs. The technique used was “value mapping technique”, so that was relevant for employees, tutors, and LGOs.

RESEARCH FINDINGS

Unit’s Culture Guide for Employees

The Essential Values of the Character

Results of questionnaires that were distributed to 100 SRC employees show that they all (100%) “agree” that the SRC become the essential values of the character as a foundation to their office affairs. The essential character values of employees identified can be seen in Table 1 belows:

Table 1: The Sequence of Essential Character Values Based on Choice Priority for Employees

Table 1 above indicates that the essential values of character chosen by employees based on the sequence of priorities compatible for managing officer affairs were: (1) sincerity (81,25%), (2) responsibility (87,5%), (3) care (46,15%), (4) collaboration (33,33%), (5) clean and healthy (27,78%), (6) powerful (25%), and (7) intelligent (20%).

In addition to these essential character values, employees also proposed other character values, namely, discipline, volition, visionary, empathetic, open-minded, mutually respectful, belief and god-fearing (imtaq), tolerance (tepo sliro), piety, humility (tenggang rasa), solidarity, fairness, skillful, and candid (ikhlas).

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For further development of the Unit’s Culture Guide, employees proposed some suggestions such as the essential values of the character be spelt out as part of the specific learning goals. They also proposed that the essential values of the character be incorporated into the content of printed (modul) and / or non-printed materials (radio, television, web-supplement, and / or video).

Results of mapping and integrating of the seven essential values of the character into 33 employees’ tupoksi obtained were: 50(14.49%) tupoksi that have character values of honesty; 54(15.07%) tupoksi that have character values of responsibility; 51(14.49%) tupoksi that have character values of intelligence, 7(2.03%) tupoksi that have character values of clean and healthy; 23(10.14%) tupoksi that have character values of care; 49(14.49%) tupoksi that have character values of cooperation; and 41(14.20%) tupoksi that have character values of powerful.

Table 2: Results of Integrating of the Essential Values of the Character Into Employees’ Main Tasks

Results of Validation

Expert validators. Results of validation to the guide drafts 1 and 2 claimed “compatible” for SRC situations and conditions. As for the aspects of content, language and systematics (including typographical arrangement), both validators stated that the guide drafts 1 and 2 are “good” and “very good“. In addition, validators recommended necessary improvement in aspects of language such as some errors in spelling / writing; repetition of the sentence; the use of paraphrasing so that sentences are more effective.

Employee validators. Results of validation to the drafts 1 and 2, majority (95.65%) of employees stated “compatible” for the SRC situations and conditions. As for the aspect of the content, language, and systematics (including typographical arrangement) drafts 1 and 2 are overall stated “good” (89.86%), and “very good“(8.7%). The essential values of the character chosen by employees based on the sequence of priorities in managing of office affairs were: responsibility, intelligent, honesty, cooperative, powerful, care, and clean and healthy.

Suggestions or comments related to the Unit’s Culture Guide drafts 1 and 2 were: (1) tupoksi for teaching need to be declared in accordance with the reality, namely that “the

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lecturer had no activity in teaching / tutorial, and evaluation”, (2) lecturers more dominant as administrative staff than academic staff, (3) tupoksi in association with the Three Higher Education Liabilities (Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi), especially in education and teaching aspects, in reality, its implementation in the UT does not accord with the existing rule, and for it to be given its basic implementation; and provided explanations equivalent, (4) important to be done further research related to the application of the character core values in the employees daily works, (5) the Unit’s Culture Guide was very important for all SRC’s employees as it was capable of giving enlightenment on the values of duties and responsibilities as employees tend to decline. Based on results of employees’ evaluation and suggestions, some contents of the Guide drafts 1 and 2 were revised as follows: (1) filling the essential character values a “cross symbol” (X), (2) indicators of “honesty” at all employees tupoksi that was used the same character value descriptions, namely “in accordance with the data ……, and the applicable rule” (descriptions used were compatible for the context of each employee tupoksi), (3) revise the errors in spelling, and delete the words “in all circumstances” in sub responsibility of an employee; and (4) at the beginning be added the list of contents, and in “Introduction” be added explanation of the contents of the Guide.

Unit’s Culture Guide for Tutors

The Essential Values of the Character

Based on the results of questionnaire distributed to 100 tutors, 99% “agree” that the SRC become the essential values of the character as a foundation to manage tutorials. It has been chosen by tutors based on the sequences of their priorities, and they viewed very important to developed in facilitating face-to-face-tutorial that are: (1) sincerity (75.86%); (2) responsibility (60.93%); (3) care (37.93%); (4) intelligent (28.28%); (5) clean and healthy (26.9%); (6) collaboration (25.52%); and (7) powerful (21.38%).

Table 3: The Sequences of Essential Values of the Character Based on Choice Priorities by Tutors

In addition to the essential values of the character, the tutors also proposed other characters values, namely: discipline, communicative, belief and god-fearing (imtaq), cultured; patient; consistent; flexibility; learner-oriented; sportive; empathetic, trustworthy (amanah); transparent; modestly; participative; democratic; competitive.

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For further development of the Unit’s Culture Guide, tutors proposed some suggestions such as: (1) implementation of the Guide should be consistent and communicative; (2) meaning of the Guide should be socialised; (3) the character of academic formation should not be trapped by values of dogmatism like in the New Era; (4) the Guide should not be restrictive but be able to facilitate tutors to innovate, create within the framework of the nation’s culture based on Five Principles (Pancasila), and be able to invite civitas academica to become an Indonesian human being who has the nation’s personality and character which have been formulated in Five Principles; and (5) the Guide should be socialised for all tutors.

Results of mapping and integrating of the seven essential values of the character into 33 tutors’s tupoksi, obtained the following results: 26 (19.7%) tupoksi that have character values of honesty; 25 (18.94%) tupoksi that have character values of responsibility; 25 (18.94%) tupoksi that have character values of intelligent, 1(0.76%) tupoksi that have character values of clean and healthy; 22 (16.67%) tupoksi that have character values of care; 13 (9.85%) tupoksi that have character values of cooperation; and 20 (15.15%) tupoksi that have character values of powerful.

Table 4: Results of Integrating the Essential Values of the Character Into Tutors’ Main Tasks

Results of Validation

Expert validators. Results of assessment of the tutor’s guide drafts 1 and 2, they all (100%) claimed “compatible” for SRC situations and conditions. As for the aspects of content, language, and systematize (including typographical arrangement) both validators stated that the guide drafts 1 and 2 are “good” and “very good“. In addition, the validators recommended necessary improvements in aspects of language such as: errors in spelling / writing; repetitions of the sentence; the use of paraphrasing so that sentences are more effective.

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Tutor validators. Results of the evaluation / validation of the draft II, all tutors (100%) stated “compatible” for SRC situations and conditions, and from aspects of the content, language, and systematise (including typographical arrangement) drafts 1 and 2, 60.42% tutors stated “good“, and 37.5% tutors stated “very good“. The essential values of the character have been chosen by tutors based on the sequences of their priorities in managing the learning groups that are: honesty and responsibility, intelligent, care, powerful, cooperative, and clean and healthy.

For further development of the Unit’s Culture Guide drafts 1 and 2, tutors proposed some suggestions such as: (1) every tutor should be given the Guide as their reference in managing tutorials; (2) information of sanction or penalisation to every collision by tutors should be added into Guide.

Based on results of tutors’ evaluation and suggestions, some contents of the Guide (Drafts 1 and 2) were revised as follows: (1) deleting the term “supervisor” because it has the same meaning of tutor; (2) incorporating the list of contents; a brief explanation of the contents of the Guide; rationale behind the development of the Guide; and some examples of various collisions committed by the tutor; and (4) correcting the spelling and sentences in the text.

Unit’s Culture Guide for Learning Group Organisers

The Essential Values of the Character

Based on results of questionnaire distributed to 18 tutors, all (100%) tutors declared “agree” if the SRC become the essential values of the character as a foundation to manage learning groups. It have been chosen by LGOs based on the sequences of their priorities in managing the learning groups that are: (1) sincerity (86.36%); (2) responsibility (77.27 %); (3) care (50%); (4) intelligent (45.45%); (5) clean and healthy (54.54%); (6) collaboration (27.27%); and (7) powerful (13.64%).

Table 5: The Sequences of Essential Values of the Character based on Choice Priorities by LGOs

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In addition to the essential values of the character, LGOs also proposed other characters values, namely, transparent; discipline; creative; innovative; trustworthy (amanah); spirit of the corps; togetherness; perfection; partnerships; virtue; brotherhood; cooperative; work hard; professional; decent; open-minded; consultative; respect to others; friendliness; having high ethos; capable; fair; and neat (“rapi”).

For further development of the Unit’s Culture Guide, LGOs proposed some suggestions such as: (1) LGOs meeting should be done periodically and continually to get suggestions and opinions from LGOs; (2) the Guide should self-explanatory, brief and be understood easily by LGOs or readers; (3) the Guide was very important to the LGOs, and should be developed and realised.

Results of mapping and integrating of the seven essential values of the character into 27 LGO’s tupoksi obtained the following results: 25 (20.5%) tupoksi that have character values of honesty; 27 (22.1%) tupoksi that have character values of responsibility; 23 (18.9%) tupoksi that have character values of intelligent, 0 (0%) tupoksi that have character values of clean and healthy; 15 (12.3%) tupoksi that have character values of care; 22 (18%) tupoksi that have character values of cooperation; and 10 (8.2%) tupoksi that have character values of powerful.

Table 6: Results of Integrating of the Essential Values of the Character Into LGOs’ Main Tasks

Results of Validation

Expert validators. Results of assessment of the LGO’s guide drafts 1 and 2, both expert validators (100%) claimed “compatible” for SRC situations and conditions. As for the aspects of content, language and systematics (including typographical arrangement) both validators stated that the guide drafts 1 and 2 are “good” and “very good“. Validators recommended necessary improvements in aspects of language such as: some errors in spelling / writing; repetition of the sentence; the use of paraphrasing so that sentence to be more effective.

LGOs validators. Results of the evaluation and validation of the draft 1 and 2, all LGOs (100%) stated “compatible” for SRC situations and conditions. Regarding aspects of the

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content, language, and systematise (including typographical arrangement) in drafts 1 and 2, 85,19% LGOs stated “good“, and 11,11% LGOs stated “very good“. The essential values of the character chosen by LGOs based on the sequences their priorities in managing the learning groups are: responsibility, honesty, intelligent, cooperative, care, powerful, and clean and healthy.

For further development of the Unit’s Culture Guide drafts 1 and 2, LGOs proposed some suggestions such as: (1) the Guide should be submitted to regents or head of districts or municipalities (bupati or walikota); (2) the Guide should provide a broad and clear understanding to the LGOs in learning groups management to enable them better manage learning groups. Based on results of LGOs’ evaluation and suggestions, in the Guide drafts1 and 2 be added “list of references or reading sources in relation with the character”.

DISCUSSION

Theoretically, values of character can be classified into four groups, namely, those based on: (1) intellegence quotient (IQ); (2) emotional qoutient (EQ) and social quotient (ScQ); (3 ) kinesthetic quotient (KQ); and (4) spiritual quotient (SpQ) (cf. RI, 2010a; 2010b).

The values of character based on “IQ” are the values which have been generated and developed based on critical thinking, skills, creativity, and innovation. Included in this group are the values of intelligent, volition, visionary and open-minded. The values of character based on “EQ and ScQ” are the values which have been generated and developed based on willingness and creativity. It was reflected in the concern, image, and the creation of novelty. Included in this group are the values of care, discipline, volition, empathetic, open-minded, mutually respectful, humility, solidarity, fairness, care, and candid. The values of character based on “KQ” are the values which have been generated and developed based on perception, preparedness, imitation, manipulation, and creation of new activities with sportsmanship. Included in this group are the values of clean, healthy and taft. The values of character based on “SpQ” are the values which have been generated and developed based on feelings and beliefs / faith. Included in this group are the values of empathy, mutual respect, belief and god- fearing, tolerance, piety, humility, solidarity, fairness, candidness and responsibility.

These values are linked and connected to character development which is believed to lead to strong-minded perpetrators (cf. Jung, 1986) capable of producing a clear, far- sighted vision (Soedarsono, 2009). Therefore, character education is deemed essential to the nation, because its dimensions are so vast (Muhaimin, 2010; cf. ALPTKI, 2009) that they touch our lives as human beings (Na-Ayudha, 2008; Agustian, 2009).

But a value does not stand alone; each value is in a spectrum or group of values. This also applies to seven essential values of the character that have been identified in this research. They cannot be broken into a specific group of values in extremely and separately, or they build and develop a character alone. A character is value-loaded. Thus, the character of employees, tutors, and LGOs to be built and developed in this study is an integration of a number of values (cf. RI, 2010a; 2010b).

Based on this reason, the Unit’s culture, namely the internal quality, background, environment, atmosphere, taste, nature, and unit’s climate can be felt and understood

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by sensing or observing the manifestation of those values. This unit’s culture that has been built and developed the rule and procedures that govern every Unit’s member in the work, in associated with others formally or informally, adherence to the principles and procedures, and work habits.

The Unit’s culture allows the unit’s growth of desired behavior by unit stakeholders (employees, tutors, and learning group organisers). When they are expected be honest, the unit’s culture is a whole conducive physical setting, environment, atmosphere, taste, nature, and Unit’s climate that are productive able to provide good experiences for the growth of honesty (Depdiknas, 2002). The Unit’s culture sourced from the spirit and values espoused the quality of life, for example: the value of responsibility, spirit, togetherness, openness, honesty, social values, respect for others, unit’sy, etc. (Depdiknas, 2002).

The development of Unit’s culture based on the essential values of the character was also done by the Directorate of Primary and Secondary Education (Dikdasmen) in the years 1989 to 2007 and 1991 to 2007 within the context of the development school culture of democratic and accountable. Furthermore, in the years 2001 to 2005, Dikdasmen has become the development of the nation’s values and character as a national program. In fact, the years 2008-2009 Dikdasmen in association with the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) has developed anti-corruption values like honesty, fairness, courage, responsibility, independence, hard work, care, simple, and discipline. In addition, the faith and devotion values and behaviours within the socio- religious context, and Pancasila’s values that have been socialised four decades ago (RI, 2010a; 2010b).

In addition, Law No. 20/2003 on National Education System, Section 3, also explicitly develops the values of faith, piety, noble character, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, democratic, and responsibility. Values were developed in the context of: (1) national education function as a developer the ability, forming the nation’s dignity character and civilisation, and smartly life of the nation, and (2) educational purposes, namely to develop the potential of learners so that they become a man of character.

CONCLUSION

Based on research and development, final products in the form of three packages of the Unit’s Culture Guide have been produced. The Guides can be used by employees, tutors, and LGOs at the Surabaya Regional Centre.

In detail, the findings of the results comprised the following:

1. the Unit’s Culture Guide developed was viewed “compatible for” conditions of the SRC by employees (95,65%), all tutors and/or LGOs (100%), and it can become a reference and/or manual in relation to norm, standard or code of ethics for every employee, tutor, and LGO to create an internal quality, setting, environment, climate, sense, nature, and psychological, social, and cultural atmospheres to work in the SRC.

2. the Unit’s Culture Guide developed was assessed as “good” and “very good” by employees (89,86%), tutors (97,92%), and LGOs (85,19%) to:

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(a)

(b)

anticipate behaviours, attitudes, and/or actions of every employee, tutor, and LGO who considered “feasible” or “unfeasible” based on profession or academic ethic view of point, so that perceived can be decreased their integrity as an educational supporter.

build an educational supporter in the SRC having: (1) strong personality, compact, a spirit of the corps, sensitivenes, awareness, carefulness, discipline, and responsiblility as a state apparatus and employees for society. (2) maturity character/nature, ability to keep unity and coherent based on brotherhood, so that enable to realize cooperation and spirit of powerful devotion, improve their ability, and became as a model to society. (3) high work-ethos to realised their personality in high quality, and awareness on their responsibility as a state apparatus and employees for society.

REFERENCES

Agustian, Ary Ginanjar (2009). Bangkit dengan 7 Budi Utama. Jakarta: PT Arga.

Asosiasi Lembaga Pendidikan T enaga Kependidikan Indonesia (ALPTKI). 2009.

Pemikiran tentang Pendidikan Karakter dalam Bingkai Utuh Sistem Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta.

Borg, W.R. & Gall, M.D. (1983). Educational Research: An Introduction. London: Longman, Inc.

Depdiknas (2002). Kultur Sekolah. Jakarta. Dick, W. & Carey, L. (1996). The Systematic Design of Instruction. New York: Harper

Collin Publishers.

Jung, C.G. (1986). Psychology and The Occult. New York: Princeton University Press.

Kemendiknas (2010). Desain Induk Pendidikan Karakter. Jakarta: Dikti.

Kemkokesra (2010). Kebijakan Nasional Pembangunan Karakter Bangsa, Jakarta: Kemko Kesejahteran Rakyat.

Kempp, J.E. (1977). Instructional Design. Belmont: Fearon Tilman Publishers, Inc.

Muhaimim, Yahya A. (2010). “Pembinaan Karakter Bangsa (Character Building)”. Dalam Sarasehan Nasional Pengembangan Pendidikan Budaya dan karakter Bangsa. Jakarta: Depdiknas.

Na-Ayudhya, Ari-Ong Jumsai (2008). Model Pembelajaran Nilai-nilai Kemanusiaan Terpadu. Jakarta: Yayasan Pendidikan Sathya Sai Indonesia.

Soedarsono, Soemarno (2009). Karakter: Mengantar Bangsa dari Gelap Menuju Terang. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Tim PTK & PPKP (2007). Penelitian Pengembangan. Jakarta: Ditnaga, Dikti. 99

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